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Admission may students with those potential employers. The calendar These accommodations are based on need, not be denied for such things as crimes, moral turpitude, of such on-campus events is posted on the Career desire. Current listings of worldwide University and are not intended to give the student an its students.

Students refer to the online and lifelong employment opportunities and internships from every unfair advantage over other students.

Calaméo - Orucatalog Cover (1)

Services through Handshake contact Student Support Services. Students are services includes an intake process during which the existence of a qualified disability is verified and encouraged to utilize this resource when seeking either First-Time Freshman Applicants temporary or permanent positions. Career Services maintains a fully with fewer than 15 college hours earned from a identified.

Assistance may be obtained by calling integrated online database linked to the Career regionally accredited institution after graduating from or disabilityservices oru. Services' web site at high school. This resource Full Acceptance. The counseling staff is opportunities. All on-campus employment, internships, score of at least or higher math and critical committed to the emotional, psychological, social, part-time and full-time positions offered to ORU reading sections combined academic, and spiritual wellness of the ORU student students and alumni are updated daily and available Probationary and P.

Applicants community. Frequent the criteria for full acceptance may be considered for intervention. This on-campus service is confidential workshops e. Students accepted on probation are subject floor of the Learning Resources Center. Every student maintaining a successful career. Extensive university registrar. Requirements are listed in the receive an Eagle Card. Their card gives access to files are maintained in graduate and professional Probation and Suspension section of this catalog. E Program are the Aerobics Center. It also serves as payment for our seeking to continue their education.

More information is available on the help them gain the necessary skills to be successful in at several off campus merchants. More information is Career Services' web site at college. To continue in the program, students must available at oru. Candidates may apply to ORU at Student Health Services is located on the first Safety and Security maintains a highly visible hour the conclusion of the junior year in high school.

They floor of the EMR residential hall. ORU students are presence. Uniformed officers must be CLEET certified should submit their scholastic records, state the eligible for these services.


  1. Static Line Parachuting Techniques and Training.
  2. Table of contents.
  3. The Stations of the Cross With Pope John Paul II.
  4. Leadership.
  5. The Hearts Stronghold.
  6. Keats and Chapman Wryed Again.

Hours are Monday through yearly by the State of Oklahoma. The staff routinely courses they expect to pursue in the senior year, Friday from a. A full-time registered nurse is on duty to alarm systems, exterior lighting, and building access and request the required references. Senior-year test administer care for moderate illnesses and injuries. ORU annually submits the Campus available. Transfer Student Applicants records which are required for most incoming students. The university provides e-Alert, an e-mail A transfer applicant is defined as one who has Student Health Services phone number is subscription service for notifying students, faculty, and earned 15 or more college credit hours from a Students who register for ORU Alerts which ORU has articulation agreements after high students, ORU provides services through the receive free, timely alerts directly to their e-mail school graduation.

The campus situations that require immediate requirements for admission and submit a final official ORU program focuses on the concept of aerobics in a communication. An official physical fitness program designed by Dr. Kenneth H. A the exercise program used by the astronauts. The pamphlet to each student through our website at student may not omit any part of his or her college HLSS department is housed in the Kenneth H. The Public Safety and Security records.

Official transcripts or letters regarding Aerobics Center, an innovative physical fitness center office is located on the ground level of the Hamill withdrawal are required from all colleges at which the that includes a human performance laboratory. Student Center. Upon approval, course credits combination of the two programs. Summer school dual may be transferred, but grade point averages from enrollment is not permitted. English proficiency is required for students whose first other institutions are not transferred to ORU. One of the following is summary form. Non degree seeking students are those who by Transfer applicants with fewer than 24 credit hours required: permission of the Admissions Office are admitted to from a regionally accredited institution must also certain courses without being required to satisfy all TOEFL submit a copy of their high school transcript.

Only non- entrance requirements or carry the number of courses Test of English as a Foreign Language remedial courses are considered for admissions prescribed for regular students. The Admissions Office reserves the right to degree seeking students does not count toward a request high school transcripts if deemed needed. The P. To safeguard the International Applicants submit an Application for Readmission to the ORU community, certain immunizations are also An international applicant is defined as any Admissions Office.

When additional coursework has required. Specific information is available from Student student applying to ORU who holds a visa allowing been completed at other institutions, official transcripts Health Services at A complete study, and is not a U. Applicants for readmission must be immunization record and health assessment form must asylee. International applicants are considered for approved by the Admissions Committee. This proficiency can be met before admission is granted. Most applicants TOEFL Test of English as a Foreign Language score transferable enrollment fee is required to secure follow a college preparatory curriculum in high school.

The enrollment fee should be paid no a unit is equal to one year of study. No units are Testing System score of 6. Enrollment fees received after choir, or vocational courses. The following secondary statements verifying ability to pay. Materials cannot be often matched when The GED minimum 52 and the international requirements in foreign language. However, those who spelling or use of the name is inconsistent.

Either exam is acceptable and multiple Early Action—September 15 at least two weeks before the beginning of the term. Only the highest of Priority Consideration—November 15 Concurrent students may enroll in up to seven pre- multiple scores submitted on the same exam is used Priority Consideration II—February 1 approved hours per semester.

Students completing a for acceptance purposes. High school students may, with the approval of a Early action allows students the opportunity to high school official and parent, take online courses SAT receive an early decision and notification of offered through the Advantage Program. Students may College Entrance Examination Board scholarships. Priority consideration allows applicants to take up to nine credit hours per semester. Box receive priority consideration for financial aid and room A total of 30 semester credit hours can be taken Princeton, NJ assignments.

Certain states may have limitations on the after February 1 for fall enrollment and October 15 number of college credit hours that can be earned ACT for spring enrollment are notified of decisions on a while still in high school. Department of Education policies for further P.

Box information. Dual enrollment courses for both Iowa City, Iowa An regard to 1 scholarly attainment as shown by from each college or university attended. Students in theology leadership qualities, and 5 compatibility with the must maintain a 2. The scores from general examinations are not accepted. Official transcripts awarded. Students may register for a maximum of student files and cannot be copied or reissued. Students remain classified as undergraduate AP and CLEP score reports can be obtained by writing to the following addresses: STUDENTS students and are billed the corresponding All degree-seeking students desiring admission to undergraduate tuition rate as long as enrollment Advanced Placement Program the ORU graduate programs must meet the following remains between Box criteria: enrollment is below Degree Status—have a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited institution or one that is hour tuition rate.

Students P. Box 2. Undergraduate Performance—meet the minimum program. GraduatePrinceton, NJ level courses taken through the Princeton, NJ required grade point average for the graduate program fast-track program may not be used to fulfill to which they are seeking admittance.

ORU Placement Examinations 3. Entrance Examinations—have appropriate standardized test scores. The specific placement tests MAT. Students scoring at the 25th percentile undergraduate leveling. Education, and College of Theology and Ministry. More information is available in the College of Education maximum of six graduate credit hours in business or section in this catalog. Students may transfer are intended to be used as an approximation and not up to one-third of the credit hours required for graduate ADMISSION or professional degree programs in theology from other professionally accredited graduate schools of theology as the specific fees that will apply when students enroll at ORU.

Courses must be equivalent to those required in the degree plan. Courses previously applied In addition to tuition, room, and board, students are responsible for the cost of bed linens sheets and - GRADUATE to an awarded degree are not eligible for transfer credit except by petition. Students should read this designed to provide in-depth concentration in a chosen STUDENTS section carefully in order to have a better academic field while maintaining a whole-person Admission requirements for non-degree-seeking understanding of what it costs to attend ORU.

This fee is not refundable Double Rooms Full-Time Tuition per semester Private Rooms The fee for D. Apartment Meal Plan Students can look for options course in the course descriptions at the back of Online per credit hour through the Marketplace. Students enrolled in any science They are identified in the course costs. The annual Contact Person: Chancey Bosch cbosch oru. Fees are payable at the Engineering Department elementary and courses and Office of Student Accounts. All other software can be purchased at the dfarnsworth oru. ORU Bookstore when students arrive on campus.

Students are encouraged to Contact Person: Scarlet Jost sjost oru. This process before purchasing software. A student may purchase a History, Humanities, and Government Department includes enrollment in classes as well as non- computer and printer from any source or bring them All majors academic and financial registration. Contact Person: Curtis Ellis wellis oru.

A student can use financial aid for a Contact Person: Tim Waters twaters oru. A student semester. Contact Person: Laura Holland lholland oru. This fee covers Questions about computer needs while students background checks, sim lab supplies, testing, are at ORU can be answered by staff in the Visual Arts and malpractice insurance.

Psychology Contact Person: Laurie E. Doerner ldoerner oru. Contact Person: Stacey Blaylock stblaylock oru. This is charged for All majors music lessons. Students must register for Pre-medicine and pre-health professions Contact Person: Hal Reed hreed oru. All chemistry majors Contact Person: William Collier wcollier oru.

Payment may be made by cash, Test Fees check, credit card, or money order. Detailed information regarding the Contact Person: Bill Elliott belliott oru. Transcripts and Nursing is charged to freshman nursing majors. Bryan Osborne josborne oru. ORU has a variety of departmental and program the student to the university are fully paid.

Students automated e-mail to their ORU account notifying them represented, and any other appropriate interested in these awards need to contact the that a refund has been processed. Refunds made via designee. If approved, the grants must maintain continuous enrollment in fall and arrived and been processed for release to the student. In the event that a student has been awarded a Parent full-time status accommodation. All requirements Students in online and lifelong learning programs Plus loan, the Student Accounts Office will mail any of full-time students apply for students receiving are not eligible for ORU scholarships and grants.

They refund due to the parent borrower unless there is a accommodation for full-time status, including but may, however, apply for federal financial aid. Students Plus authorization on file, which would allow the not limited to residential policy, chapel must be enrolled in 12 residential hours in order to be student to receive the refund. Any credit card payments attendance, and HPE requirements. The review committee then reassesses study, and loans. To apply for federal financial aid, Tuition Refunds the academic progress of the student to students complete the Free Application for Federal If a student drops or withdraws from any class or determine whether the accommodation is to be Student Aid FAFSA form online at withdraws from the university and initiates the process renewed.

These refund deadline. Refunds for university housing and The Student Accounts Office may not be used as a documents include promissory notes for accepted board charges are determined at the same percentage banking service. Excess funds for spending money are loans as well as other documents related to federal rates as tuition. All students are encouraged to Tuition refund schedules for summer and online sessions, as well as those for Graduate Education complete their financial aid file by July 15th to ensure a Modular and Graduate Theology Blended sessions are smooth registration and disbursement process.

Veterans or their dependents There are various types of private funding sources courses by the registrar. Non-attendance of classes desiring to take advantage of educational benefits must for grants and loans. These payment percentages are also applicable which issues the university a Certificate of Eligibility. Withdrawal or dropping to less than receiving these benefits.

Quest Whole Person Scholarship event. Such an awards vary and are renewed annually contingent financial assistance, how and when to apply for upon an individual Whole Person Assessment, G. For additional information regarding financial Honors Program Scholarships Sixteen Fellows counselor for more information. Students must apply for The required procedure is as follows: phone at Requested documents may scholarship consideration. Lewis Ave. Renewal course load prior to the beginning of the scholarship calculator is available at varies by level and requires good standing with the semester.

To be University. Specific during attendance. Tuition Discounts are available to active and Restricted Scholarship Funds have been Repayment for both types begins six months after the retired military personnel, as well as those employed in donated by friends and partners of the university for borrower ceases to be enrolled at least half-time at an full time ministry at a church or serving full time at a ORU students in financial need who meet certain eligible institution.

Dependent undergraduate students Christian school. Regardless of combination, the subsidized unsubsidized form. Current interest rates for this fees, room, board, and books. Grants Students PLUS may be secured by parents of Repayment begins six months after a borrower ceases Legacy Grants are awarded to undergraduates dependent students for amounts up to the cost of to be enrolled at least half-time at an eligible institution. Interest is charged on the loan from sponsored loan for graduate students.

Students may cumulative GPA of 2. Current interest rates for these programs can be aid received, including Direct Stafford Loans. Current interest demonstrated financial need who are working toward rates. Repayment begins within 60 days of the final rates for this program can be found at their first bachelor's degree.

Students can defer repayment of principal and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Employment interest while enrolled at least half-time in an eligible Grants SEOG are awarded based on results of the Federal Work Study is awarded on the basis of program. ORU students must maintain satisfactory undergraduate students who have been legal residents The actual amount received by the student is academic progress SAP to receive financial aid.

Institutional work requirements that follow. Students who do not meet the Funds are disbursed at the midpoint of each semester. The actual amount received by requirements or have been granted an appeal to undergraduate students who have been legal residents the student is determined by the number of hours continue working to meet the requirements. The Registrar's semester. Funds are disbursed at the Each graduate school offers a Fellowship midpoint of each semester. Need grants requires good standing with the graduate school and degree program requirements. Transfer students are require on-campus residence.

Amounts may be the University. Credit is not awarded for noncredit obtained and are not guaranteed for renewal. Academic Scholarships or audited courses, or for grades of F, I, or W. Vermont State Grants are awarded by the state Academic Scholarships are available to graduate Graduate students must meet all requirements for of Vermont to qualified students who have completed a students based on GPA. Awards are given on a first-come, first- renewal is based upon GPA and requires good including GPA as listed in the college sections of this awarded basis and vary in amount.

Students not meeting the above requirements can take summer courses to remove deficiencies. Student files contain correspondence verification service such as the National Student academic year with the exception of athletic grants and communication that take place between the Clearinghouse, or collection agent ; a person serving and ORU National Merit Scholarships is limited to student, the university, and the public. Information on the Board of Trustees or assisting another school tuition costs. ORU awards that exceed this total are within the file is maintained according to the Family official in performing his or her tasks.

A school official reduced to be in compliance with this policy and cannot Educational Rights and Privacy Act FERPA of , has a legitimate educational interest if the official needs be used in future semesters. ORU scholarships for as amended. This act was designed to protect the to review an education record in order to fulfill his or undergraduate students are limited to four years eight privacy of education records, to establish records, and her professional responsibility. Undergraduate students in with this act. Institutional aid and loans will be adjusted.

The following is name and address of the of loan funds to ORU. Students should arrive at ORU education records within 45 days of the day the office that administers FERPA: with funds to cover a minimum of three month's living university receives a request for access. Students Family Policy Compliance Office expenses and be able to pay institutional charges at should submit to the registrar written requests that U. Department of Education ORU.

Public Speakers, Entertainers, Facilitators

The Maryland Avenue, SW university official will make arrangements for access Washington, DC Withdrawal and notify the student of the time and place where the Undergraduate students declare dependent or Federal law requires that when a student records may be inspected. If the records are not independent status as part of the registration process.

If the student received less student of the correct official to whom the request academic record and FERPA. Parents may obtain non- financial aid than the amount earned, the student will should be addressed. Parents also may sources and the student may owe ORU for institutional misleading. A student may ask the university to amend obtain non-directory information by obtaining a signed charges. The amount of assistance earned is determined misleading. The student should write the university More information, including a tutorial, is available on a pro-rated basis.

If the university decides not originally scheduled financial assistance. Courses are identified with letters and numbers. POLICIES A school official is defined as a person employed by The letters refer to the subject area, and the first digit the university in an administrative, supervisory, of the course number indicates the level. Numbers CRNs are assigned to each course section accounts by the last day to add classes. As part of the Conflict and Change course, aid. Students choose from a matriculation or choose to meet the full requirements in advance of studying abroad.

October 18, 2012

This request must be done through the ePetition Study Committee. ORU awards credit for the following off-campus course are designed to guide students on faith and A full-time student who is readmitted and whose programs semester and summer offered by the learning issues. The Uganda Studies Program offers students a student re-enrolls or the full requirements of the catalog personal encounter with this country, which has of any one of the subsequent years. Program courses taught by local faculty in the requirements of the catalog of the most recent year of prepare students to live the Christian life in a religiously English tutorial tradition immerse students in a uniquely entry.

Students examine the African experience. Topics such as African literature, Seven years is the time limit a student has to meet many faces of Australia and are challenged to grapple African history, and Christianity and Islam in the degree requirements under a particular catalog. Students use realities of the marketplace and public life. Student and its diversities.

Students study the Chinese under Oxford academicians. This is a five-week study reserves the right to alter its rules and regulations at language, geography, history, religion, and culture. A program built around lectures focusing on Christianity any time. The university reserves the right to cancel service opportunity allows students to assist in English and the development of Western culture. In addition to any course for which enrollment is considered classes.

The program is appropriate for rising of Martha's Vineyard, offers students the opportunity to sophomores, juniors, and seniors; graduate and Non-traditional Coursework study and work with faculty and music industry experts seminary students; non-traditional students; and those who share an interest in making and marketing enrolled in continuing education programs.

Courses by Special Arrangement contemporary music. Directed study courses industry entrepreneur. An intensive field experience in Department section of this catalog. The Institute is also are charged at the same rate as other residential Nashville is included. The objectives of the course, as defined in the The India Studies Program provides both The Focus on the Family Institute, located in current syllabus, must be met. Special assignments, immersion in a local community and broad exposure to Colorado Springs, offers a multidisciplinary curriculum tests, and conferences may be required to satisfy the a variety of peoples, places, and customs in India.

A course of study that broad overview of the historical, religious, Universities. The Institute focuses on topics related not involves extensive work while the student is absent geographical, and economic landscape of India only to psychology, sociology and family studies, but from the campus can be pursued only upon the through the eyes of Indian Christians, and students can also to leadership, social ethics, public policy, approval of a petition presented to the dean of the take courses in their major areas with Indian students philosophy and theology.

The Institute is also on the respective college. CCCU registry. It allows students to available in the Music Department section of this Online courses offered in the fall and spring experience cross-cultural living, to deepen their catalog. Institute Hunger Education and Department are seven weeks in duration, except for international context, to explore the economic, political, Resources Training is an interdenominational center courses offered for the MBAL program.

Online courses social, and cultural realities of Latin America, and to that trains students to serve in Third World locations. A neighbors. ORU meets or exceeds the following requirements hours. A student may enroll in a maximum of five course material covered to earn credit in any subject than 1 one hour of classroom or direct faculty credit hours in a three-week summer session.

Students listed in the catalog. Students may not petition for instruction and a minimum of two hours of out-of-class may enroll in a maximum of eight hours of online credit in this manner for courses in which they have student work each week for approximately 15 weeks courses during a seven-week session. After for one semester or trimester hour of credit, or 10 to 12 A student may enroll in a combination of online successfully petitioning, students must enroll in the weeks for one quarter hour of credit, or the equivalent courses and residential courses during the summer.

A test-out section of the desired classes before the last amount of work over a different amount of time; or 2 maximum of 16 combined hours residential and day to add classes. The student and department at least an equivalent amount of work as required in online is permitted during the summer. The words "test-out" appear as hours. Students who Fall and Spring Terms to enroll in part-time hours while remaining on a full- do not take the exam or complete the required time status.

Full-time student status for the fall or spring check with their financial aid counselors for more Graduate students and part-time undergraduate semesters is defined as being enrolled in a minimum of information. If this accommodation is approved, tuition students are charged one-half tuition for recording the 12 credit hours; thus, a student must be enrolled in at is calculated on a per credit hour basis. The required credit. Full-time undergraduate students are charged least 12 credit hours to be considered full-time and to procedure for requesting an accommodation follows: one-half tuition for any hours over The petition must be approved by Student Accounts.

Recorded course withdrawal does not 2. The student must provide the Office of Student The student must pay the difference between the change full-time status unless the student withdraws Support Services with appropriate documentation. The Director of Student Support Services forms a tuition charge for a non-test-out section of the class. Continuation as a Student must submit a petition via the ePetition system at 4.

Requests must be approved by student's request. If the accommodation is approved, University is not automatic. Online and Lifelong Learning, Financial Aid and In addition, all requirements applicable to full-time Additionally, all prior balances must be paid in full. Student Accounts. Online courses contribute toward students as stated in the ORU student handbook apply, Students admitted on probation must earn the fulfillment of the hour requirement; however, it including, but not limited to, the residential policy, sufficient credit and meet academic grade-point may affect full-time financial aid.

At the end of the approved duration, the student may the first academic year to be removed from probation. Students consult with their program Accounts. Students may not take more than 24 hours accommodation will be renewed. Progress for in a given semester. If the accommodation is not approved or renewed students is monitored by the advisors and the students, as requested, the student may appeal the review based on the appropriate degree plan sheet.

April 7, 2011

Within a 15 to week semester, students may courses toward meeting the degree requirements. Two hours per semester constitutes a full- withdraw from courses until the 13th week. Students student handbook. Students called up compatible with its philosophy. It is imperative for the program. Good cause typically converted to the no-pass grade. Credits taken under periods. Students may the Provost. Courses the syllabus for that course. Therefore, all matters of semester allowed to make up incomplete work. It is audited without credit will not count toward completion attendance and the privilege of making up assignments given only after the student establishes with the of a degree or load credit.

Students are responsible for or tests, except for administratively excused absences, instructor and the department chair or college dean, by any tuition incurred as a result of requesting that are between the student and the professor. Good cause typically Some restrictions apply to the College of Theology and Administrative Excuses consists of a catastrophic event in which the student is Ministry.

Books by Jim Edwards

Students absent from a class or laboratory period prevented from completing the course requirements. It Normally, regular class attendance as outlined in at the request of the university administration are given is the responsibility of the student to initiate this the syllabus is required to receive an audit on the an administratively excused absence by the respective process, make up any incomplete work and ask the transcript.

A student who withdraws from an audit department chair or director This excuse grants the instructor to submit a grade change to the registrar. If a unreasonable limitations or penalties. The Office of Student Development does not give Application for Graduation administrative excuses for individual absences, such Course Withdrawal Thirty semester hours of a baccalaureate degree as funeral leave or student illness.

If the reason for withdrawal is being called The minimum number of credits required for an and professors. Students for someone other than immediate family members To request a withdrawal the student must submit a should refer to the department and college sections for may be deemed as an unexcused absence by some petition to withdraw. All petitions will be accepted prior information regarding the number of hours and the professors.

Student Health Services does not give to the end of the 13th week of a semester-long course specific requirements for completing degrees. This also is a matter between students and differing length. This process is completed online. The course appears on the transcript graduation. Double credit is Participate in Commencement.

Some seminars, completed online and requires approval by the GPA of 2. The graduation application processing fee is non- degrees in the Graduate School of Theology and refundable for candidates who had planned to graduate Ministry. Candidates who are professional education courses. Generally, above 12 hours each semester. Seniors in good their application no later than December 1.

Some departments may enrollments. This option must be declared during student must complete any deficiencies by August 31 have more rigorous requirements. More information is available in the Grading required to submit a new application. Incompletes System section. The date that the notice is are placed on academic probation. The last day to withdraw from the university is they are not meeting academic standards. Suspended Honors are determined for the commencement ORU recognizes the importance of assisting program and ceremony, for both graduate and students may not be reinstated until one regular current students who are in the armed services.

Academic Students including students using VA Educational at the conclusion of the fall semester prior to suspension is recorded on the transcript. The benefits encountering special circumstances impacting commencement. Honors on the diploma include the Department of Veteran Affairs will be notified of their enrollment with Oral Roberts University may final semester of coursework for the degree, the grade any students using educational benefits who are submit a Special Circumstances form to the Office of earned on the senior paper or project and the oral placed on academic suspension. This may result Student Success and Retention.

This document is defense of the senior paper or project. If the request is due to unexpected college dean and approval of the Provost, a military deployment which interrupts or precludes the cumulative grade point averages GPAs of at least student will be put on probation or will be 3. Students with cumulative GPAs between 3. Accounts and the Registrar's Office on a case-by-case A student who has been academically suspended basis. Students are advised of their options, including Students with a cumulative GPA between 3.

To categories of students who may appeal a suspension receive honors, students also must be successful in the decision. The Credit can be transferred to ORU in several ways. Credit is not awarded for grades of "F," courses must be completed at Oral Roberts University. Students must also upon review and approval of a student's summer maintain a minimum cumulative grade-point average enrollment schedule by a designated member or based on their total attempted credit hours. To continue in the fall semester accredited institutions. Regionally accredited means 1.

Students who do not raise their regionally stipulated accreditation agencies approved More than 60 2. Department of Education. ORU also will be enrolled on probation in the fall semester. Certain undergraduate departments not be reinstated until after one regular semester. Technical or vocational courses are not ordinarily business, education, engineering, nursing and social considered for transfer.

No credit is given for any work require higher cumulative grade-point averages. Students may petition to receive credit for courses of Accounts section found under Financial Information completed at institutions that do not meet the in this catalog. University's retention standards is in good Transfer credit is based according to the transfer academic standing.

Courses that do not have an ORU evaluated at the end of each spring. Academic equivalent but are academic in nature are counted as progress is evaluated at the end of the following general elective credit unless transferred in to meet a Honor Rolls specific requirement through a petition to transfer fall semester.

These documents are to be submitted as accredited institutions in accordance with the enrolled in high school are eligible for transfer credit in part of the application process and will be evaluated by established ORU Transfer Guidelines. College credits earned guidelines. College credits earned A maximum of 72 semester hours may be prior to high school graduation that would transfer in as Transferring Credit after Matriculation transferred into ORU from a two-year community or ORU and level courses, including general To transfer courses after matriculation, students junior college.

A maximum of 98 hours can be elective credit, are eligible for transfer credit by Petition should consult the transfer guidelines established by transferred from a four-year institution. A minimum of for Policy Exception only. As you can see, followers play an active, vital role in the success of any group, organization, or society. They are neither passive nor subservient. We also believe that effective leadership is based on service, not hierar- chy. In our discussions of transformational leadership in chapter 4 and ethical leadership in chapter 11, we suggest that truly great leaders serve rather than rule because they recognize that those whom they lead entrust them with leadership responsibilities.

In reality followership and leadership are two separate concepts, two sepa- rate roles. Neither role corners the market on brains, motivation, tal- ent, or action. Either role can result in an award-winning performance or a flop. The greatest successes require that the people in both roles turn in top-rate performances. We must have great leaders and great followers. From our perspective, leadership is first, and foremost, a communication- based activity.

Leaders spend much of their time shaping messages that are then presented to a variety of follower, constituent, and stakeholder groups. Certainly political leaders, executives, coaches, educators, and religious figures alike all share this common charac- teristic—the higher the level of leadership, the higher the demand for com- munication competence. Willingness to Communicate Leadership effectiveness depends on our willingness to interact with others. Those who engage in skillful communication are more likely to influence others.

Directions: Below are 20 situations in which a person might choose to communicate or not to communicate. Presume you have completely free choice. Indicate in the space at the left what per- centage of the time you would choose to communicate in each type of situation.

The WTC is designed to indicate how willing you are to communicate in a variety of contexts, with different types of receivers. The higher your WTC total score, the more willing you are to com- municate in general. Similarly, the higher your given subscore for a type of context or audience, the more willing you are to communicate in that type of context or with that type of audience.

Scoring: The WTC permits computation of one total score and seven subscores. The sub- scores relate to willingness to communicate in each of four common communication contexts and with three types of audiences. To compute your scores, merely add your scores for each item and divide by the number indicated below. McCroskey, Richmond, and their colleagues report that overall scores on the WTC scale are directly related to communication behavior. Individuals with high WTC scores communicate more frequently and for longer periods of time than people with low WTC scores.

Increased communication activity, in turn, leads to a number of positive outcomes in the United States, a society that val- ues individualism and assertiveness see chapter Speaking up is not viewed as favorably in other cultures, such as some Asian societies, that put more emphasis on the needs of the group as a whole. They also stay with organizations longer than their quiet colleagues. There are a number of reasons why we may be reluctant to interact with others: we may have inherited a tendency to be shy, introverted, and anxious. Subscore Desired Scoring Formula Group discussion Add scores for items 8, 15, and 19; then divide by 3.

Meetings Add scores for items 6, 11, and 17; then divide by 3. Interpersonal conversations Add scores for items 4, 9, and 12; then divide by 3. Public speaking Add scores for items 3, 14, and 20; then divide by 3. Stranger Add scores for items 3, 8, 12, and 17; then divide by 4. Acquaintance Add scores for items 4, 11, 15, and 20; then divide by 4. Friend Add scores for items 6, 9, 14, and 19; then divide by 4. To compute the total WTC scores, add the subscores for stranger, acquaintance, and friend. Then divide by 3.

This perceived deficiency becomes a vicious cycle. We can reverse the cycle by developing our skills. Skill development builds confidence and encourages us to talk. When we communicate, we practice our skills and increase our effectiveness. In one study, for example, students enrolled in an introductory public speaking course significantly increased their willingness to give speeches during the semester.

Those who were the least willing to give speeches at the beginning of the class saw the most rapid improvement. Storytelling as Leadership One of the primary ways in which leaders shape reality is through storytell-. Leaders tell their stories in a variety of informal and formal contexts, from conversations over a cup of coffee to formal presentations.

Through stories leaders can connect themselves with others, building strong relationships and a sense of affiliation. Stories carry multiple messages. Among other functions, they reflect important values, inspire, and describe appropriate behavior. Further, when leaders tell compelling stories they influence others to pick up the same story line, thus extending the narra- tive. This process of retelling stories often in a revised form by those who fol- low is part of the cocreation of meaning that is central to storytelling.

Royal Dutch Shell Group offers a good example. Tales were told for years of profitable growth and technical leadership. These stories were then retold throughout the company across sites in more than countries. Denning proposes that there are eight general categories of stories that leaders can use to assist in achieving their goals. Sparking action. These stories describe how a successful change was implemented in the past, allowing listeners to imagine how such a change might work in their situation. For example, as program director of knowledge management for the World Bank in the mids, Denning struggled to get his colleagues to see the importance of the need for a central repository for the information scattered throughout the organization.

He framed the need for collecting and sharing information at the World Bank by describing how technology was changing the landscape of our planet. Asking effective questions is a critical skill for leaders. In his book, Leading with Questions, profes- sor and consultant Michael Marquardt builds a case for exercising leadership through questioning.

To discover how successful leaders use inquiries, Marquardt interviewed 22 leaders from around the world who are known for their questioning abilities. Both groups and individuals benefit as a result. Questions promote organizational learning; improve collective problem solving and deci- sion making; produce greater adaptability; energize followers; encourage teamwork; and foster innovation. Individuals working in a questioning climate experience greater self-awareness, self- confidence, openness, and personal flexibility.

They become better listeners; are more comfort- able expressing and managing conflict; develop keener insight into organizational dynamics and relationships; and demonstrate stronger commitment to learning and personal development. Unfortunately, leaders are often quick to provide answers instead of asking questions, based in part on their belief that followers are looking to them for solutions. When leaders do ask ques- tions, they may put others on the defensive. Moving from judgmental questions to productive ones takes a shift in mind-set as well as behavior.

Leaders need to begin with a commitment to learn rather than to judge. They should frame questions in a nonthreatening manner to express curiosity and to open dialogue. The questioning leader should allow the other person enough time to reflect and to respond and show genuine interest in the reply.

Finally, it is critical to follow up on information and concerns. The story he told involved a health worker in in a remote village in Zam- bia who logged on to the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Pre- vention in Atlanta, Georgia, and got an answer to a question on how to treat malaria. When this story was added to the presentation, audience members were able to visualize how the information collected in their organization might be used. Communicating who you are. These stories reveal your identity to an audi- ence, building trust and creating a connection.

Political leaders such as Barack Obama, for example, write books, maintain websites, and give speeches designed to present a desired image of themselves to the electorate. Leadership is personal. Do the people you lead know who you are, what you care about, and why they ought to be following you?

Communicating the brand. These organizational stories are designed to communicate brand image to customers. Cosmetic retailer The Body Shop cre- ated a global brand without using conventional advertising. Brand identity was communicated through the stories of the company founder, the late Anita Rod- dick, and through commitment to a model of commerce-with-a-conscience.

Transmitting values. Sinegal, the founder and retired CEO of the company, took only a modest salary and spent much of his time on the road. While visiting up to half a dozen Costco stores a day, he preached his philosophy of loyalty to his customers and to his employees. Read the case study in box 1. Jim Sinegal, cofounder and the recently retired CEO at Costco, began his career at age 18 unloading mattresses in a month-old venture called Fed-Mart. After several acquisitions and start-ups, Fed-Mart morphed into Costco in the early s. Sinegal believes that employees should be paid fair wages for their valuable contributions to the organization.

The average Costco warehouse employee earns significantly more than at other warehouse merchandisers. As Sinegal explains, there is a real business advantage in treating employees well. Sinegal also took an unorthodox view on his own compensation. He led from the road, hopping on the corporate jet and visiting up to half a dozen Costco stores a day, including the grand openings of all new store loca- tions. Costco employees gush about the family atmosphere, and why not? This story is used as a teaching tool at Costco to encourage others to hold fast to the company philosophy.

Have you ever been involved with an organization where the CEO had a strong or weak presence? What was the impact of having regular interaction or a lack of interaction with this individual? Do you think that Costco is too generous to employees and not generous enough to stockholders? If so, what was the impact of this story? Fostering collaboration. These stories encourage people to work together by generating a narrative to illustrate common concerns and goals. As exem- plified in the case study in box 1. Stories are frequently used to rein- force this collaborative culture.

One such story is that of a Southwest Airlines pilot who quickly exited his flight after arrival only to return a short time later for preflight checks for his return trip. Where had he been? Getting a quick cup of coffee? No, he had climbed in the front bin of the aircraft on a cold and windy day to unload all of the mail and freight—with no gloves, knee pads, or coat—while the other agents off-loaded the bags in the back. Taming the grapevine. These stories highlight the incongruity between rumors and reality.

For example, one might deal with a false rumor of immi- nent corporate-wide reorganization by jokingly recounting how difficult it is to work out the seating chart at the executive committee meetings. It is impor- tant to be careful with these types of stories as mean-spirited humor can gen- erate a well-deserved backlash and the denial of a rumor that turns out to be true can have a devastating impact on credibility. Sharing knowledge. These stories focus on problems and show, in detail, how corrections were made and why the solution worked.

Many organizations use an after-action review AAR in this manner. AARs are assessments con- ducted after a project or major activity that allow employees and leaders to explore what happened and why. They may be thought of as a professional dis- cussion of an event that enables employees to understand why things hap- pened during the progression of the process and to learn from that experience. AARs can be useful in a variety of situations, including: following the introduc- tion of a new product line or computer system upgrade, after a busy holiday season in a retail store, or after a major training activity or a change in proce- dures.

The discussion during the AAR allows leaders to use sharing knowledge stories to improve subsequent organizational responses to similar situations. Leading people into the future. These stories evoke images of a desired future. Often such stories provide limited detail while encouraging listeners to imagine what the future might be. There are many fine historical examples of such sto- ries, but none, perhaps, had more impact on twentieth century life in the United States than Martin Luther King, Jr.

Emotional Communication Competencies The rational dimension of leadership is critical. In the chapters to come,. Forgetting the emotional side of leadership, however, would be a mistake. Effective leaders are also skilled at sharing and responding to emotions. For example, they know how to communicate affection, liking, and excitement to followers. In addition, they know how to channel their emotions in order to achieve their objectives and to maintain friendly group relations. Neal Ashkanasy and Peter Jordan argue that successful leaders effectively utilize emotions at five different levels of the organization.

At this level the focus is on how leaders experience and respond to emotions. During the course of a day, leaders must cope with a variety of events beyond their control rising and falling stock prices, customer feedback, news stories that generate positive and negative responses. Effective emotional leaders communicate confidence and stability in the face of these emotional ups and downs.

Level 2 is between persons. Leaders differ in emotional intelligence EI , which is the ability to perceive, respond to, and express emotions. Level 3 is the interpersonal level, which is concerned with interaction within dyads in the organization. Effective leaders use emotional displays to accom- plish tasks. For example, an instructor may make supportive comments to stu- dents when they feel overwhelmed by assignments but later express disappointment about the results of one test to motivate class members to study harder for the next exam.

In addition to employing emotional expres- sions to achieve goals, successful leaders use positive, supportive displays to manage relationships and to build trust. Level 4 describes the group level. Through their example, they help spread emotions like happiness or sadness throughout the group. Formal leaders exert direct influence on moods. For example, groups accomplish more when their appointed leaders are in a positive frame of mind.

The affective tone of the group as a whole improves when formal leaders develop positive emotional relationships with individual group members. Level 5 is the organizational level. Effective leaders at this level help create an emotional tone for the entire organization. They realize that there may be times when negative feelings should be expressed. For instance, employees under particularly high levels of stress may need to voice their frustrations.

Unfortunately, some proponents of emotional leadership appear to over- state its importance. They go so far as to argue that nearly all of the competen- cies that account for executive success are emotional rather than cognitive in nature. For instance, some researchers identify conflict management and influence as emotional skills, but we consider them to be largely rational leadership communication abilities. Striking a balance between logic and emotion is safer than making one more important than the other. When it comes to leadership, both are essen- tial. To avoid making a hasty decision in a crisis, leaders must exercise a variety of cognitive skills, such as rejecting their faulty beliefs and assumptions, gathering facts, identify- ing stakeholders, soliciting a broad range of opinions, keeping records, and perspective taking.

At the same time, they must employ such emotional skills as managing stress, overcoming mental and physical fatigue, and resisting group pressures. The following set of emotional competencies demonstrates that the suc- cess of followers and leaders depends on how well are they able to integrate emotion and cognition. Skillfully blending feeling and thinking requires the five skills listed below. Perception, appraisal, and expression of emotion.

Emotional intelligence begins with the ability to identify, evaluate, and then express emotional states. While most of us are not this insensitive, we frequently suffer from emotional blind spots. A leader who had to overcome her lack of emotional intelligence in order to succeed is described in the Leadership on the Big Screen fea- ture at the end of the chapter.

Attending to the emotions of others. Those in a leadership role must under- stand the feelings of followers in order to connect with them. Instead, he will appear out of touch. Emotional facilitation of thinking. Emotional states impact decision-making styles. Good moods facilitate creative thinking while sad moods slow the decision-making process and encourage more attention to detail. Both emotional states have a role to play in problem solving.

Some problems require intuitive, broad thinking; others demand a more linear, logical approach. Emotionally intelligent leaders know how to match the mood with the problem. Further, they recognize the dangers of ignoring risks when in an optimistic frame of mind, or of being too critical when feel- ing pessimistic. Using emotions to facilitate thinking also means chan- neling feelings in order to reach goals. For example, moderate fear of failure can spur us to prepare before making a presentation. Remember- ing past successes can reduce our anxiety before we deliver the speech.

Understanding and analyzing emotional information and employing emotional knowledge. This cluster of competencies links symbols to emotions. Leaders must be able to label what they feel and recognize the relation- ship between that label and other related terms. Irritation and annoyance lead to anger and. Understanding this fact can empower leaders.

A supervisor may decide to postpone a meeting with a dis- agreeable employee, for instance, when she senses that her irritation with this individual could escalate into unwanted anger. Recognizing how emotions blend together is also important. Surprise is one example of an emotion that rarely stands alone. When we feel surprised, we gen- erally experience some other emotion—perhaps happiness, disappoint- ment, or anger—at the same time.

Regulation of emotion. The last component of emotional intelligence puts knowledge into action. This set of competencies enables leaders to cre- ate the feelings they desire in themselves and in others. Emotionally skilled leaders know how to maintain positive moods and how to repair negative ones. To do so, they employ such tactics as avoiding unpleas- ant situations, engaging in rewarding tasks, and creating a comfortable work environment. In addition, they can step back and evaluate their feelings to determine if their responses in a situation were appropriate.

Such evaluation can encourage them to remain calm instead of getting upset and to be more supportive instead of only focusing on the task. Effective leaders also help others maintain and improve their moods. They use these skills to create cohesive groups and to inspire and moti- vate followers.

Humans are not, in any practical sense, predominantly rational beings, nor are they predominantly emotional beings. They are both. Playing to a Packed House: Leaders as Impression Managers From a communication standpoint, leaders are made, not born. We can compare the leadership role to a part played on stage to illustrate how effective communication skills translate into effective leadership. Proponents of this perspective argue that, like actors in a drama, people create meaning and influence others through their performances. The date is a performance that may take place on any number of stages: the dance floor, the living room, the movie theater, the football game.

The actors the couple prepare in their dressing rooms at home before the performance and may return to the same locations for a critique session after the date ends. To see how impression management works, change one aspect of your usual communication and watch how others respond. If friends have told you that you seem unfriendly because you are quiet when meeting new people, try being more assertive the next time you meet strangers at a party.

If you make a conscious effort to greet others, introduce yourself, and learn more about the others at the gathering, you may shake your aloof, unfriendly image. Leaders also engage in impression management to achieve their goals. Important clues to how we can shape the impressions others have of us can be gleaned from the examples of outstanding leaders. Charismatic or transformational leaders are skilled actors who create the impression that they are trustworthy, effective, morally worthy, innovative, and skilled. Many people are uncomfortable with the idea of impression management.

They equate playing a role with being insincere, since true feelings and beliefs might be hidden. They note that far too often fellow students and coworkers get ahead by acting like chameleons, changing their behaviors to conform to the wishes of whatever group in which they find themselves. As we saw in our earlier discussion of narcissistic and Machiavellian leaders, these are very real dangers. Self-promotion and ingratiation can trump competence and hard work. However, research suggests that individuals typically use impression management to project a public image that is congruent with their self-con- cepts.

Further, impression management is part of every human interaction. Others form impressions of us, whether we are intentional about our behaviors or not. Frequently, we have no choice but to play many roles. We are forced into performances as job applicants, stu- dents, dating partners, and leaders each day. The real problem is that we often mismanage the impressions we make. Our behaviors may make us appear dull or untrustworthy when we really are interesting and honest. Some fear that leaders can manipulate impressions to mislead the group.

Yet, impression management is essential for achieving worthy objectives. The state human services director who inspires her employees to meet the needs of more clients through her use of impres- sion management is helping the disadvantaged, making better use of state funds, and boosting the morale of her organization. Because impression management can be used to further group goals or to subvert them, it should be judged by its end products.

Ethical impression management meets group wants and needs and, in the ideal, spurs the group to reach higher goals. Organizational impression experts Paul Rosenfeld, Rob- ert Giacalone, and Catherine Riordan offer the following guidelines for deter-. Historians, philosophers, and social. What makes us unique as humans is our ability to create and manipulate symbols—abstract, arbitrary representations of reality.

Four primary definitional themes have emerged in the leadership literature: 1 leadership is about who you are; 2 leadership is about how you act; 3 leadership is about what you do; and 4 leadership is about how you work with others. We offer the follow- ing communication-based definition of leadership: Leadership is human symbolic communication that modifies the attitudes and behaviors of oth- ers in order to meet shared group goals and needs.

However, leading differs sig- nificantly from managing when it comes to creating an agenda, developing a human network for achieving the agenda, and executing the agenda. While the manager is more absorbed in the status quo, the leader is more con- cerned with the ultimate direction of the group. Bad leadership is the product of selfishness, cognitive errors, and external forces.

Destruc- tive leaders can be classified as incompetent, rigid, intemperate, callous, cor-. In the organizational context, destructive leadership behaviors are directed at followers, the organization, or at both. Leaders exert a greater degree of influence and followers have more respon- sibility for carrying out the work. Followers are playing an increasingly important role in modern society.

Think of yourself as a leader-follower, routinely shift- ing between leader and follower functions. It is also true that the more leadership responsibility you have, the more your job will focus on communication. Story- telling is a valuable supplement to abstract reasoning and analysis. Impor- tant types of stories include those that: 1 spark action, 2 communicate who you are, 3 communicate the brand image to customers, 4 transmit organizational values, 5 foster collaboration, 6 tame the grapevine by pointing out the disconnect between rumors and reality, 7 share knowl- edge about problem solving, and 8 lead people into the future.

They demonstrate five emotional competences: 1 perception, appraisal, and expression of emotion; 2 attending to the emotions of oth- ers; 3 emotional facilitation of thinking; 4 understanding and analyzing emotional information and employing that information; and 5 regulation of emotion.

Generate positive images through the use of framing, scripting, staging, and performing exemplification, promotion, facework, and ingratiation. Beneficial impression management promotes positive interpersonal relationships and cooperation; accurately portrays people, events, or products; and facilitates effective decision making. Take a trip to a local bookstore and check to see how many books you can. Did you find more or fewer titles than you expected? Report your findings in class. Conduct a debate regarding the relative importance of leaders and follow- ers.

Have one-half of your class argue that leaders are more important than ever and have the other half argue that followers are becoming more influential than leaders. Develop your own definition of leadership. How does it compare to the ones given in the chapter? Make a list of the characteristics of leaders and managers.

Are your charac- teristics the same as those described by Kouzes, Posner, and Kotter? To clar- ify the differences between leaders and managers, describe someone who is an effective leader and then someone who is an effective manager. How do these two people differ? Share your descriptions with others in class. Select one of your follower roles student, employee, team member, etc.

Consider the behaviors and qualities you appreciate or dis- like in those who lead or follow you. What can you learn from those strengths and weaknesses that you can apply as a leader-follower? What conclusions can you draw about being an effective leader or follower?

Write up your findings. In a group, determine the advantages and disadvantages of sharing leader- ship responsibilities in a group or organization. Based on your discussion, what conclusions do you reach about shared leadership? Pair off with someone and compare your overall Willingness to Communi- cate WTC scores as well as your seven subscores. What factors make you and your partner reluctant to communicate in all situations or in par- ticular contexts? What can each of you do to increase your willingness to communicate? What communication skills do you need to sharpen?

Consider the stories you have heard from leaders in the past. Identify individuals you believe have low or high emotional intelligence. Dis- cuss what you feel the impact of these ratings is on leadership effectiveness. Analyze the impression management strategies of a well-known leader. What image does this individual create? Written by Charles Choi, George Fox University Dealing with groups of followers from a variety of cultural backgrounds is. Leadership effectiveness increasingly depends on intercultural competency. For example, leadership practices considered effective in an individualistic society might be rejected by employees who.

Such is the case in South Korea. Confucianism heavily influences Korean culture, and this code of ethical behavior places high value on the maintenance of harmony and trust as the basis of social interaction. As a result, Korean businesses are often marked by authoritarian and paternalistic leadership, hierarchical structure, a bureaucratic managerial style, and accep- tance of large differences in power and status.

One group of researchers identified the following as key organizational leadership competencies in Korea:. They also found a clear distinction between executive-level and middle-level management, with a different set of competencies required for each group. In South Korea, executive leadership is exclusively engaged in developing and communicating a vision and strategy and in initiating and leading organiza- tional change. Middle-level managers, on the other hand, are responsible for operations and social interaction with subordinates.

To succeed, they must demonstrate relationship competencies—managing performance, coaching fol- lowers, building teamwork, and providing a role model to follow. To be effective in Korea and other cultures, leaders and followers must set aside their preconceived notions about how to communicate within the organizational setting. Only then can they begin to develop the competencies they need to succeed in a multicultural world. Born with autism, Grandin must cope with the ignorance of the medical community her pediatrician recommends that she be institutionalized for life , her lack of social and emotional intelligence, the prej- udice of faculty and fellow students, and sexism.

Using her unique ability to see in pictures, as well as her insight into animal behavior, Grandin develops a more humane livestock handling system that is now used in approximately half of the meat plants in North America. She also goes on to earn her doctorate, to teach at Colorado State University, and to serve as an expert in autism education. Chapter Links: leadership communication, emotional intelligence, willingness to communicate, impression management, bad leadership.

The Dimensions of Leadership Communication Style Think of the leaders with whom you have worked in the past. Chances are. The lead- ers you enjoyed working with were most likely those who created a productive and satisfying work climate. Under their guidance, you probably accomplished a great deal and had a pleasant and memorable experience. One factor that contributes to variations in leader effectiveness is commu- nication style. Leadership communication style is a relatively enduring set of communicative behaviors in which a leader engages when interacting with fol- lowers.

The communication style a leader selects contrib- utes to the success or failure of any attempt to exert influence. To explore your own leadership style preferences, complete the self-assessment in box 2. Directions: Read the twelve statements below. For each statement indicate your level of agreement. A leader should leave it 1 2 3 4 5 up to followers to initiate informal, day-to-day communication. Researchers have identified a number of leadership communication styles in the past half-century. These varying styles can be pared down to two pri- mary models of communication: one model compares authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire styles of leadership communication; a second model contrasts task and interpersonal leadership communication.

A leader should encourage 1 2 3 4 5 followers to initiate decision making without first seeking approval. A leader should closely 1 2 3 4 5 monitor rules and regulations—punishing those who break the rules. A leader should provide 1 2 3 4 5 broad goals and leave decisions regarding the methods for achieving the goals to followers. Scoring: Tally your score on each of the leadership communication styles listed below by totaling your points as indicated. The higher your score, the greater your preference for a given leadership communication style. An unequal distribution of scores generally indicates a stronger preference for a certain style.

Relatively equal scores indicate a more balanced preference of styles. This likely indicates a blended approach in which styles are based on situational factors. Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lippitt, and Ralph White undertook one of the earliest investigations of leadership communication style. Each of these styles of communication has unique features that affect how leaders interact with followers. The authoritarian leader maintains strict con- trol over followers by directly regulating policy, procedures, and behavior. Authoritarian leaders create distance between themselves and their followers as a means of emphasizing role distinctions.

Many authoritarian leaders believe that followers would not function effectively without direct supervi- sion. The authoritarian leader generally feels that people left to complete work on their own will be unproductive. Examples of authoritarian communicative behavior include a police officer directing traffic, a teacher ordering a student to do his or her assignment, and a supervisor instructing a subordinate to clean a workstation.

Democratic leaders engage in supportive communication that facilitates interaction between leaders and followers. The leader adopting the democratic communication style encourages follower involvement and participation in the determination of goals and procedures. Democratic leaders assume that fol- lowers are capable of making informed decisions. The democratic leader does not feel intimidated by the suggestions provided by followers but believes that the contributions of others improve the overall quality of decision making. A group leader soliciting ideas from group members, a teacher asking students to suggest the due date for an assignment, and a district manager asking a salesperson for recommendations regarding the display of a new product are examples of democratic communicative behavior.

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